A recent thermodynamic discovery leads to advanced technologies that will save a huge amount of energy across the entire global energy system. The enormous associated cost savings will accelerate the implementation and drastically reduce the global greenhouse gas emission growth.

A 200 year old flaw in thermodynamics causes inefficient energy technologies such as heat engines, heat pumps and heat exchangers. Recent scientific discoveries and technological inventions are now presented as Dutch thermotechnologies.

Heat exchanger

Heat exchange has fueled human progress for the past 2,000 years. It processes all energy flows in power plants, cars, ships, airplanes, refrigeration, heating, cooling, drying, spraying and of course in all industrial processes. It is largely responsible for 80% of the global energy supply because heat exchange also plays an important role in all heat engines and heat pumps.


Tezzit started around 2011 with the goal of developing economic and ecologic grid-scale energy storage based on isothermal compression energy storage (iCAES). Achieving extremely efficient heat exchange is the biggest challenge. In fact, cheap ecological large-scale energy storage in any major city in the world is within reach if one can achieve extremely efficient heat exchange. So Tezzit started researching heat exchange with an analytical approach because increasing the heat exchanger surface area to obtain high efficiënt heat exchange is far from optimal.

In the next sections three breakthroughs in fundamental heat exchanger science are briefly explained:

  1. Tsinghua university (2005)
  2. Delft university of technology (2015)
  3. Tezzit (2021)

Breakthrough Tsinghua university (2005)

Despite all efforts, heat exchanger analysis and development remains an empiric practice. Although heat exchangers are simple flow technologies scientist aren’t able to define efficiency. As a result, according to this article 100 different efficiency formulas have been developed. Modern CFD and topology optimization techniques have not changed this. Until, in 2005, Chinese scientists at Tsinghua university suddenly discovered heat exchanger flow patterns that had never been seen before.

Numerical cross-sectional flow fields in the DDIR-tube
From article Field synergy optimization and enhanced heat transfer by multi-longitudinal vortexes flow in tube

The scientists of Tsinghua university called this heat exchanger technology enhanced heat transfer tube, the discrete double-inclined ribs tube (DDIR-tube). Their scientific method and derived flow pattern are explained in the article Field synergy optimization and enhanced heat transfer by multi-longitudinal vortexes flow in tube and associated invention in patent US20070000651A1. Following this invention other Chinese inventions came across with partly similar flow patterns (patents CN103940283B and CN102706180A).

Flow field structure schematic diagram in embodiment on metal tube cross section
From patent CN103940283B A kind of longitudinal turbulence works in coordination with generating polynomial heat transfer element
Shown is that liquid flows to sketch map in heat exchanger tube of the present invention
From patent CN102706180A Immersive coil type heat-exchanger


The scientists of Tsinghua university discovered these extraordinary flow patterns by using an analytical method called Field synergy optimization. Despite the clearly superior scientific and experimental results, today’s advanced heat exchanger designs are still based on different, less efficient, passive heat transfer techniques. The article The Heat transfer Enhancement Techniques and Their Thermal Performance Factor presents many of those different, less efficient, passive heat transfer techniques.

According to Tezzit, the reason that the scientists of Tsinghua university found these extraordinary flow patterns is because field synergy optimization is not based on the commonly applied entropy generation method (hyperlink opens an overview in ResearchGate). For several years Tezzit has unsuccessfully tried to analyze and develop improved heat exchanger design with different variants of the entropy generation method.

Breakthrough Delft university of technology (2015)

In 2015 a thesis was finalized at the Delft university of technology titled Topology Optimization of Heat Exchangers aiming to optimize the whole structure of a two flow heat exchanger, by means of Both 2D and 3D topology optimization. Despite limited computational power within the 3D topology optimization (coarser meshes and less iterations), an extraordinary flow pattern was generated by the optimization algorithm (5.3.2. Problem 2: boundary heat flux by introducing low conductivity extensions to the inlets).

Figure 5.25: Velocity field of the two fluids. Normalised velocity components of the hot flow normal to the channel’s length, show circulation patterns (page 46)

Associated flow channel design which induces this flow patterns is shown in the following figure.

Figure 5.27: Resulted design of the second 3D problem. Resulted topology of the interface wall (grey surface)
and the solid regions (yellow areas).

At page 47 is explained that further post processing and filtering of the the flow channel design has been done in order to make the design manufacturable (by considering the areas where the velocity was close to zero to be solid). The resulted flow channel design can be seen in figure 5.28.

Figure 5.28: Post process design of optimized design 5.27a. Front (L) and back (R) view of the post-processed design.

Despite the explanation and the conclusion of the computed flow pattern are limited and partly incorrect (circulation flows … that possibly increases the convective heat transfer, by circulating the thermal layers), a striking similarity can be observed with the analytically derived flow patterns of the scientists of Tsinghua university using field synergy optimization.

Breakthrough Tezzit (2021)

When Tezzit rejected the entropy generation method and developed an alternative analytically derived heat transfer method itself, advanced heat exchanger flow patterns were discovered. Initially, Tezzit found the same flow patterns that the scientists at Tsinghua and Delft university had also found. Further application of the alternative analytically derived heat transfer method resulted in unprecedented performing flow patterns. Tezzit was able to develop a generic framework from this for designing and fabricating associated geometric flow channel shapes. Tezzit now claims to have developed an analytical and technical design heat exchanger framework that allows all existing types of heat exchangers to be designed much more efficiently. In addition, a completely new type of heat exchanger has also been discovered. Also part of the turnkey intellectual property are a new analytical heat exchanger analysis method (corrected and unified LMTD and ϵ-NTU methods) and an analytically derived platform-independent real-feedforward heat exchanger control algorithm.

200 year old thermodynamic flaw

Tezzit has gone to great lengths to find the root cause of their discovery of extraordinary heat exchanger flow patterns. After many years of researching the entropy generation method and its associated analytical framework known as the second law of thermodynamics, we dare to say that we have found the so-called root cause. The reason Tezzit, and actually the scientists at Tsinghua and Delft university, discovered very sophisticated heat exchanger flow patterns is because no concept from the second law of thermodynamics had been used. According to Tezzit, the second law of thermodynamics is incomplete and what this law now tries to explain is even incorrect. For 200 years since the first analytical components have been published by Sadi Carnot, the thermodynamic scientific community haven’t been able to incorporate the fourth dimension time into the thermodynamic laws and analytical thermodynamic formulas. Tezzit is not the only one to conclude this, several scientists have researched and found reasons to conclude the same or similar, many even far before the existente of Tezzit.


The reason why this finding, or call it research question if need be, should certainly be considered crucial today was well described fifty years ago by an american scientist:

The first and second laws of thermodynamics, stating respectively the conservation and the dissipation of energy, are considered by many writers to be the two most fundamental laws of the universe. Both laws are held to be empirically derived. Yet, upon reflection, it does not seem possible to state, from the limited empiric evidence available, either proposition as a universal law.

For over a hundred years, we have employed a dissipative technology of low efficiency, which embodies our understanding of the second law. We have, as a result, an ecological and energy crisis. If entropy changes turn out to be symmetrical for the universe as a whole, there may well be no ultimate barrier to the development of a technology which closely approaches unity in its efficiency. Re-examination of the second law, with a view to obtaining higher technological efficiency, is urged.

1974, Quote from chapter VII Conclusion from article Religion, Philosophy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

To present some support that the so-called research question is meaningful, various opinions of scientists have been listed here and recent climate records here.

Winning the battle against climate change with Dutch Thermotechnology

Tezzit has recently submitted a technical and economic business proposition to the Dutch Government: the National Growth Funds. With the National Growth Fund, the Dutch government will invest € 20 billion over the next 5 years in projects that ensure long-term economic growth.

Dutch center of global thermotechnology manages and operates the greatest scientific and technical invention of the century. After years of scientific research, a Dutch team has unraveled the most important law of physics in the world: the second law of thermodynamics. All existing energy technologies are based on this incomplete and incorrect 200 year old law. The Dutch team has established the Unified Second Law of Thermodynamics and the so-called Thermotechnologies which are highly efficient energy technologies which could be developed with this new knowledge. This will enable the Netherlands to position itself in a short period of time as the worldwide center of the battle against climate change.

Download most recent version (version 4) of the Growth Funds business proposition (Dutch): Winning the battle with Dutch Thermotechnology


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