A recent thermodynamic discovery leads to advanced technologies that will save a huge amount of energy across the entire global energy system. The enormous associated cost savings will accelerate the implementation and drastically reduce the global greenhouse gas emission growth.

A 200 year old flaw in thermodynamics causes inefficient energy technologies such as heat engines, heat pumps and heat exchangers. Recent scientific discoveries and technological inventions are now presented as Dutch thermotechnologies.

Heat exchanger

Heat exchange has fueled human progress for the past 2,000 years. It processes all energy flows in power plants, cars, ships, airplanes, refrigeration, heating, cooling, drying, spraying and of course in all industrial processes. It is largely responsible for 80% of the global energy supply because heat exchange also plays an important role in all heat engines and heat pumps.


Tezzit started around 2011 with the goal of developing economic and ecologic grid-scale energy storage based on isothermal compression energy storage (iCAES). iCAES requires extremely efficient heat exchange, which is the biggest challenge. In fact, cheap ecological large-scale energy storage in any major city in the world is within reach if one can achieve extremely efficient heat exchange. So Tezzit started researching heat exchange with an analytical approach because increasing the heat exchanger surface area to obtain high efficient heat exchange is far from optimal.

In the next sections three breakthroughs in fundamental heat exchanger science are briefly explained:

  1. Tsinghua university (2005)
  2. Delft university of technology (2015)
  3. Tezzit (2021)

Breakthrough Tsinghua university (2005)

Despite all efforts, heat exchanger analysis and development remains an empiric practice. Although heat exchangers are simple flow technologies, scientists are still not able to define the efficiency of a heat exchanger. As a result, over time more than 100 different efficiency formulas have been developed (according to the article Performance Evaluation Criteria for Heat Exchangers Based on First Law Analysis). Modern CFD and topology optimization techniques have not changed this. Until, in 2005, Chinese scientists at Tsinghua university suddenly discovered heat exchanger flow patterns that had never been seen before.

The scientists of Tsinghua university called this heat exchanger technology enhanced heat transfer tube, the discrete double-inclined ribs tube (DDIR-tube). Their scientific method and derived flow pattern are explained in the article Field synergy optimization and enhanced heat transfer by multi-longitudinal vortexes flow in tube and associated invention in patent US20070000651A1.

In chapter 5 Conclusions, the scientists summarize some performance characteristics which are partly quoted below.

The multilongitudinal vortex flow can be induced by the discrete double-inclined ribs on the internal wall tube, which is similar to the optimal flow pattern given by the synergy equation. The numerical calculation and experiment show that the comprehensive performance of enhanced laminar heat transfer in DDIR-tube are better than that of the currently-known enhancement techniques. The Nusselt number can be increased by 250–650% with a resistance increase of 120–300% compared with those of laminar heat transfer in a circular tube (L/D = 300) with inlet effect considered for Re = 500–2300. And the Nusselt number can be increased by 240–110% with a resistance increase of 130–210% compared with that of transitional and turbulent heat transfer in a circular tube (L/D = 300) for Re = 2300–15000.

According to Tezzit, the technical method to obtain these flow patterns by the discrete double-inclined ribs on the internal wall tube is less efficient than the geometrical channel structure of the advanced heat exchanger technology derived by computer topology optimization at Delft university of technology; see next section.

Following this invention other Chinese inventions came along with partly similar flow patterns (patents CN103940283B and CN102706180A).

Flow field structure schematic diagram in embodiment on metal tube cross section
From patent CN103940283B A kind of longitudinal turbulence works in coordination with generating polynomial heat transfer element.

Shown is that liquid flows to sketch map in heat exchanger tube of the present invention
From patent CN102706180A Immersive coil type heat-exchanger


The scientists of Tsinghua university discovered these extraordinary flow patterns by using an analytical method called Field synergy optimization. Despite the clearly superior scientific and experimental results, today’s advanced heat exchanger designs are still based on different, less efficient, passive heat transfer techniques. The article The Heat transfer Enhancement Techniques and Their Thermal Performance Factor presents many of those different, less efficient, passive heat transfer techniques.

The reason that the scientists of Tsinghua university found these extraordinary flow patterns is because the used field synergy optimization is not based on the commonly applied entropy generation method (hyperlink opens an overview in ResearchGate).

Breakthrough Delft university of technology (2015)

In 2015 Delft university of technology published a thesis titled Topology Optimization of Heat Exchangers aiming to optimize the whole structure of a two flow heat exchanger, by means of Both 2D and 3D topology optimization.

Despite limited computational power within the 3D topology optimization (coarser meshes and less iterations), an extraordinary flow pattern was generated by the optimization algorithm (5.3.2. Problem 2: boundary heat flux by introducing low conductivity extensions to the inlets).

Associated flow channel design which induces this flow pattern is shown in the following figure.

On page 47 it is explained that further post processing and filtering of the flow channel design has been done in order to make the design manufacturable (by considering the areas where the velocity was close to zero to be solid). The resulting flow channel design can be seen in figure 5.28.

Figure 5.28: Post process design of optimized design 5.27a. Front (L) and back (R) view of the post-processed design.

Despite the fact that the explanation and the conclusion of the computed flow pattern are limited and partly incorrect (circulation flows … that possibly increases the convective heat transfer, by circulating the thermal layers), a striking similarity can be observed with the analytically derived flow patterns of the scientists of Tsinghua university using field synergy optimization.

Breakthrough Tezzit (2021)

Several years Tezzit unsuccessfully tried to analyze and develop improved heat exchanger design with different variants of the entropy generation method, without any success. When Tezzit eliminated the entropy generation method and used their alternative analytically derived heat transfer method, advanced heat exchanger flow patterns were discovered. Initially, Tezzit found the same flow patterns as the scientists at Tsinghua and Delft universities found. Further application of the alternative analytically derived heat transfer method resulted in unprecedented performing flow patterns. Tezzit was able to develop a generic framework which provides the possibility to design and fabricate geometric flow channel shapes for any type of heat exchanger application. We claim to have developed an analytical and technical design heat exchanger framework that allows all existing types of heat exchangers to be designed much more efficiently. In addition, a completely new type of heat exchanger has been discovered. Also part of the turnkey Tezzit intellectual property is a new analytical heat exchanger analysis method (corrected and unified LMTD and ϵ-NTU method) and an analytically derived, platform-independent, real feedforward heat exchanger control algorithm.

200 year old thermodynamic flaw

After many years of researching the entropy generation method and its associated analytical framework known as the second law of thermodynamics, we dare to say that we have found the so-called root cause of extraordinary heat exchanger flow patterns. The reason why Tezzit, and the scientists at Tsinghua and Delft universities, discovered these very sophisticated heat exchanger flow patterns is because they did not use any concept from the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics is incomplete and what this law tries to explain is incorrect. Further research led to alternative analytic views on the second law of thermodynamics. These views led to highly sophisticated flow patterns for ultimate efficient heat exchange. In addition, these alternative analytic views have been extensively tested and are now presented as Unified second law of thermodynamics. These topics are explained in more detail in the following paragraphs. You can skip the in-depth explanation and continue reading at paragraph If…..

Fourth dimension time (in-depth)
Since the first analytical components were published by Sadi Carnot 200 years ago, the fourth dimension time has not been included in the thermodynamic laws and analytical thermodynamic formulas. Nowadays, these laws and formulas still don’t include the dimension time. We are not the only ones to conclude this, several scientists have researched and found reasons to conclude the same or similar, many even far before we did. The current thermodynamic knowledge base contains quasi-time which simply connects different thermodynamic states that are in thermodynamic equilibrium. With this simplified analytical foundation, thermodynamic science could be developed without the dimension time and without the elementary phenomenon known as heat conduction (Fourier’s law). Instead, the current thermodynamic knowledge base contains a quasi-heat conduction. Within this particular analytic analytical construction, the following thermodynamic concepts could be established in the past: isothermal heat transfer, isothermal heat source, isothermal compression, and temperature-, pressure, velocity- uniform body (working medium) during an adiabatic/isothermal compression. These concepts are important analytical pillars of Carnot’s theorem. All these concepts contradict several fundamental (non/less empiric) laws of physics.

The first contradiction is that these 200 year old concepts require an infinite high conductive heat transfer coefficient and heat signals and thermal energy transfer which is faster than the speed of light. In 1905 Einstein’s special relativity theory explained that this is not possible. On top of that these thermodynamic concepts contradict the zeroth law of thermodynamics. Within quantum-scale phenomena, a transfer of thermal energy without a temperature difference has never been observed. In other words, all observed thermodynamic phenomena within classical mechanics clearly show cause and effect. Isothermal heat transfer, isothermal heat source, isothermal compression, and temperature-, pressure, velocity- uniform body (working medium) during an adiabatic/isothermal compression does not show cause and effect. When the complete equation of state is applied to an ideal adiabatic compression/expansion, it becomes apparent that the currently accepted view of ideal adiabatic compression/expansion contradicts the first law of thermodynamics. Basically all mentioned processes contradict with one of the main pillars of the second law of thermodynamics itself: entropy should always increase, even within an infinite slow Carnot cycle. Another related concept is that the mentioned thermodynamic processes are so-called quasi-equilibrium processes which are carried out infinitely slowly. The problem seems to be that an observer who has observed a certain so-called quasi-equilibrium process for an infinite long time cannot report afterwards that the thermodynamic process was a reversible process. All mentioned processes and thermodynamic properties have never been observed in reality. In fact, recent lab research has shown that the speed of the transfer of thermal energy is about 1,000,000 times slower than the speed of light.

The consequence for the well-known Carnot heat- work ratio formula (efficiency) is that the equal-sign must be replaced by a less-than sign.

Unified second law of thermodynamics (in-depth)
After years of research and development, it became clear that the second law of thermodynamics does not explain the thermodynamic processes of heat- work and transfer of thermal energy correctly. Within heat exchanger analysis and development we systematically ignored the entropy generation method and basically the complete second law of thermodynamics. As a side-product of the heat exchanger development it became clear which parts of the second law of thermodynamics were correct and which were incorrect. With this alternative analytic view on the second law of thermodynamics, various minor and major physical and thermodynamic unifications could be accomplished. Each unification was accompanied by a detailed description and explanation of the physical and thermodynamic process. Gradually Tezzit obtained a complete phenomenological explanation of a generalized thermodynamic heat- work process, generalized irreversible phenomena and of the transfer of thermal energy:

  • Unified heat- work phenomena
  • Unified heat sources
  • Unified heat- work cycles
  • Unified medium (gas, liquid and solids)
  • Including the necessity of a decision maker
  • Unified formulas ratio work- thermal energy
  • Unified reversible thermodynamic phenomena
  • Unified irreversible thermodynamic phenomena

Applying this collection of alternative analytic conceptions of the second law of thermodynamics eventually led to advanced flow patterns for efficient heat exchange. First, a similar flow pattern was derived comparable to those of the Tsinghua and Delft universities. Continuing to apply the alternative analytic view of the second law of thermodynamics led to even more sophisticated heat exchanger flow patterns. In addition, these analytical views have been extensively tested.

At that point it became clear that the alternative analytic view on the second law of thermodynamics could meet the criteria of phase 2 of the empirical cycle (phase 2 Induction: the formulation of hypotheses – generalized explanations for the phenomenon). Subsequently two analysis methods could be developed to objectively analyze and quantify the alternative analytic view on the second law of thermodynamics: Carnot’s motive loss of power and Micro-insulation. With these concepts all criteria for phase 3 of the empirical cycle could be met (phase 3: Deduction: the formulation of experiments that will test the hypotheses i.e. confirm them if true, disprove them if false). When it was concluded that all analytical, scientific, and technical results were coherent, this vastly improved and expanded version of the second law of thermodynamics was called the Unified Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Remaining position of the Carnot cycle (in-depth)
Much more drastic than the change of the equal-sign in the Carnot formula is the position of the Carnot cycle within the Unified second law of thermodynamics. Within the so-called Unified reversible thermodynamics phenomena section, the entire Carnot theorem is being minimized to one of the infinitely many types of thermodynamic heat- work cycles which all are as irreversible as the Carnot cycle. Or formulated in the terms of the old second law of thermodynamics: There are infinitely many types of thermodynamic heat- work cycles, all as reversible as the Carnot cycle.

Any thermodynamic cycle in which the working medium (regardless its phase: gas, liquid or solid) intermittently receives an amount of thermal energy from a heat source (A) and subsequently delivers an amount of thermal energy to another heat source (B) can be used for releasing an amount of work (exergy). Associated assumption is that the average temperature of heat source (A) is higher than the temperature average of heat source (B). There are an infinite number of different types of heat sources in the universe. The least occurring type is a so-called isothermal heat source, according to Tezzit this type is not possible, not even theoretically. Most occurring heat sources possess characteristics such as a gliding temperature in space and/or time domain and possess a surface temperature which is not isothermal but dependent on the rate of the transfer of thermal energy. All thermodynamic cycles are equally irreversible as long as the process of receiving thermal energy from heat source A and the process of releasing thermal energy to heat source B takes place with the same temperature difference (conductive transfer of thermal energy). There are an infinite number of occurring thermodynamic cycles in the universe, most of them don’t generate work but solely heat up and subsequently cool down within a certain cyclic process. A so-called decision maker is necessary to be able to generate/extract work out of a random thermodynamic cycle. The decision maker decides at which moment of the cycle an external pressure (and kinetic energy) is applied to the working medium and when the working medium may apply its pressure (and kinetic energy) to the external environment. To distinguish the different phases within a thermodynamic cycle and the role of the decision maker, the thermodynamic cycle of any Rayleigh–Bénard convection can be analyzed. The observable kinetic energy (and associated potential energy) of the medium can be considered as the extracted work of the thermodynamic cycle.

The Carnot formula is a simple formula expressing the ratio of the amount of work (exergy) which can be extracted from a thermodynamic cycle which intermittent receives an amount of thermal energy from an isothermal heat source (A) (according to Tezzit this concept is not possible, not even theoretically) and subsequently generates work and finally releases a (remaining) amount of thermal energy to another isothermal heat source (B). Initially the Carnot formula was valid for the Carnot cycle. The Carnot formula (corrected formula with less-than sign) applies to any thermodynamic cycle with two isothermal heat sources and a decision maker, regardless the followed thermodynamic trajectory, regardless the type of working matter (air, water, steel, etc.) and regardless the existence of intermediate thermodynamic processes in which thermal energy is exchanged or temporarily stored. The Carnot formula is a simple formula for any such cycle in which only the property of thermal expansion/deformation of matter remains. Assuming that the property of thermal expansion/deformation of matter is a single-valued function (not necessarily a monotonic function) of the variable temperature which only possesses a singularity at 0 Kelvin. The statements within the article The internal contradiction of the second law of thermodynamics are correct: “The second law of thermodynamics: Carnot efficiency has nothing to do with the thermophysical properties of the working medium” and “The calculation of Carnot by the first law of thermodynamics is reliable and complete“.

Fallacy of circular reasoning within the overall heat transfer coefficient
Another analytical concept closely related to heat conduction is known as the overall heat transfer coefficient (OHTC) in fluid flow (a part of Newton’s law of cooling). This was and still is the main topic of Tezzit’s research and interest, because the science of heat exchangers is based on Newton’s law of cooling. Within the analysis of the OHTC the so-called electrical resistance analogy is often used. This is a quasi-heat conduction which includes quasi-time. Heat exchanger science contains fundamental problems even with the empirical knowledge base that has been built up since the beginning of heat exchanger science. An example to show how deep-toothed the problem is: with the electrical resistance analogy one can examine in an analytical way how the overall heat transfer coefficient has been composed. This is an analogy model that can never work in fluid flow phenomena. Wikipedia summarizes it accordingly: “Unfortunately, although the electrical and thermal differential equations are analogous, it is erroneous to conclude that there is any practical analogy between electrical and thermal resistance“. Working with this analytical concept results in the continuation of the fallacy of circular reasoning within the overall heat transfer coefficient. All of the above statements are supported by external independent research information, of which most are peer-reviewed.


The reason why this finding (or research question) should certainly be considered crucial, was well described fifty years ago by an American scientist who referred to the possibility that correcting and completing the second law of thermodynamics could lead to “technology which closely approaches unity in its efficiency“:

The first and second laws of thermodynamics, stating respectively the conservation and the dissipation of energy, are considered by many writers to be the two most fundamental laws of the universe. Both laws are held to be empirically derived. Yet, upon reflection, it does not seem possible to state, from the limited empiric evidence available, either proposition as a universal law.

For over a hundred years, we have employed a dissipative technology of low efficiency, which embodies our understanding of the second law. We have, as a result, an ecological and energy crisis. If entropy changes turn out to be symmetrical for the universe as a whole, there may well be no ultimate barrier to the development of a technology which closely approaches unity in its efficiency. Re-examination of the second law, with a view to obtaining higher technological efficiency, is urged.

1974, Quote from chapter VII Conclusion from article Religion, Philosophy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

An argument supporting the so-called research question is the fact that the second law of thermodynamics has yet to be grounded before it can exit phase 1 of the empirical cycle (phase 1 Observation: The observation of a phenomenon and inquiry concerning its causes). This observation is based on several peer-reviewed scientific works including those of Uffink, Robertson, Miao, Monléon Pradas (Poincaré) and Finn. Additional arguments can be found in the quotes of various scientists. Another argument is that the more research was done, the more entropy clones were developed (The entropy universe) without reducing the number of unanswered questions. Last but not least; the validity of the research question is supported by the fact that it would be unwise (quote “stupid” at 1:32) to continue researching in the same direction for another 200 years, taking into account recent climate records.


After developing the analytical and technical frameworks for advanced heat exchanger thermotechnologies, the new analytical insights and methods within the Unified second law of thermodynamics also provided the knowledge to develop highly advanced flow technology for mass exchangers, static mixers, dynamic mixers and for direct flow filtration. In addition to strengthening Tezzit’s intellectual property, it can also be seen as supporting the validity of the Unified second law of thermodynamics. Or at least support of the idea that the entropy generation method is incorrect.

Tezzit aims to transfer the turnkey technologies and associated analytical knowledge and tools to a new owner on a commercial basis. Tezzit wants to make the knowledge and findings regarding Unified second law of thermodynamics available to science. Upon request, we will transfer our knowledge to those scientific research projects that unravel the second law of thermodynamics.

Winning the battle against climate change with Dutch Thermotechnology

Tezzit has recently submitted a technical and economic business proposition to the Dutch Government: the National Growth Funds. With the National Growth Fund, the Dutch government will invest € 20 billion over the next 5 years in projects that ensure long-term economic growth.

Dutch center of global thermotechnology manages and operates the greatest scientific and technical invention of the century. After years of scientific research, a Dutch team has unraveled the most important law of physics in the world: the second law of thermodynamics. All existing energy technologies are based on this incomplete and incorrect 200 year old law. The Dutch team has established the Unified Second Law of Thermodynamics and the so-called Thermotechnologies which are highly efficient energy technologies which could be developed with this new knowledge. This will enable the Netherlands to position itself in a short period of time as the worldwide center of the battle against climate change.

Download most recent version (version 4) of the Growth Funds business proposition (Dutch): Winning the battle with Dutch Thermotechnology


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